Reference Library

Biovation’s expertise is across a targeted spectrum of infection control chemistries and non-woven fiber products.  We invite you to read material from our reference library of application notes, product overviews and case studies.

BioArmour Blood Pressure Cuff Shield Related

BLOOD PRESSURE CUFFS AS A VECTOR FOR TRANSMISSION OF MULTI-RESISTANT ORGANISMS: COLONISATION RATES AND EFFECTS OF DISINFECTION

Author: Victoria Base-Smith, CRNA, MSN, CCRN

Blood pressure (BP) cuffs are potential vectors for transmission of multi-resistant organisms (MROs). The present study aims to determine MRO colonisation rates in BP cuffs from areas of high patient flow as an assessment of the quality of disinfection and infection control practices…

Read more: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23759042

BLOOD PRESSURE CUFF AS A POTENTIAL VECTOR OF PATHOGENIC MICROORGANISMS: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY IN A TEACHING HOSPITAL

Author: Harjeet Grewal,1 Kavita Varshney,1 Lee C Thomas,2 Jen Kok2,3 and Amith Shetty1

A level of contamination reaching 100 or more colony-forming units per 25 cm2 was observed on 92 (45%) of inner sides and 46 (23%) of outer sides of 203 cuffs. The highest rates of contamination occurred on the inner side of BP cuffs kept in intensive care units (ICUs) (20 [83%] of 24) or on nurses’ trolleys (27 [77%] of 35). None of the 18 BP cuffs presumed to be clean (ie, those that had not been used since the last decontamination procedure) had a high level of contamination. Potentially pathogenic microorganisms were isolated from 27 (13%) of the 203 BP cuffs: 20 of these microorganisms were Staphylococcus aureus, including 9 methicillin-resistant strains. The highest rates of contamination with potentially pathogenic microorganisms were observed on cuffs used in ICUs and those kept on nurses’ trolleys. For 4 patients with a personal sphygmomanometer, a genetic link was found between the strains isolated from the BP cuffs and the strains isolated from the patients…

Read more:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16941320

LONGITUDINAL EVALUATION OF NEONATAL NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS: ASSOCIATION OF INFECTION WITH BLOOD PRESSURE CUFF

Author: Martin G. Myers, M.D.

Nosocomial infections acquired in a special care nursery were surveyed longitudinally. The rates of acquired infection were determined, allowing the evaluation of specific infection control measures. A blood pressure cuff, utilized for all infants in the nursery, was associated with an increased rate of infection…

Read more: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/263872

AN OUTBREAK OF MUPIROCIN-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ON A DERMATOLOGY WARD ASSOCIATED WITH AN ENVIRONMENTAL RESERVOIR

Authors: Marcelle C. Layton, M.D.; Martitza Perez, M.D.; Peter Heald, M.D.; Jan Evans Patterson, M.D.

Over a 14-month period MRSA (mupirocin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) or BMSSA (borderline methicillin-susceptible S. aureus) was found on 13 patients. Eleven (84.6%) of the patients were mupirocinresistant. Nine (81.8%) isolates were present upon admission. Eight patients had been previously in the hospital on the same ward within the past two months…

Read more: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8354867

NONDISPOSABLE SPHYGMOMANOMETER CUFFS HARBOR FREQUENT BACTERIAL COLONIZATION AND SIGNIFICANT CONTAMINATION BY ORGANIC AND INORGANIC MATTER

 Author: Victoria Base-Smith, CRNA, MSN, CCRN

Bacterial colonization, in 70 separate cultures obtained over six weeks, occurred on 57 (81%) of the cuffs. Bacterial colonization was found on 100% of the cuffs obtained from OR, PACU, BSICU, and the ER. Ninety percent of cuffs obtained from SICU and 80% of cuffs from MICU were colonized. Cuffs from NSICU and CICU demonstrated no growth…

Read more: https://www.aana.com/newsandjournal/Documents/nondisposable_0496_p141.pdf

THE MICROBIAL FLORA OF IN-USE BLOOD PRESSURE CUFFS

Authors: M.G.M. Cormican, D.L. Lowe, P. Flynn, D. O’Toole

The capacity of blood pressure cuffs to act as vehicles of hospital infection has been recognised. We describe the microbial flora of in-use DINAMAP blood pressure cuffs used in the operating theatres and one recovery room in a teaching hospital. Our results show significant microbial contamination of in-use blood pressure cuffs…

Read more: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1917433

MEASURES TO CONTROL AND PREVENT CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE INFECTIONS

Authors: Dale N. Gerding, Carlene A. Muto, and Robert C. Owens, Jr.

Control of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) outbreaks in health care facilities presents significant challenges to infection control specialists and other health care workers. C. difficile spores survive routine environmental cleaning with detergents and hand hygiene with alcohol-based gels. Enhanced cleaning of all potentially contaminated surfaces with 10% sodium hypochlorite reduces the environmental burden of C. difficile, and use of barrier precautions reduces C. difficile transmission. Thorough hand-washing with chlorhexidine or with soap and water has been shown to be effective in removing C. difficile spores from hands. Achieving high-level compliance with these measures is a major challenge for infection control programs. Good antimicrobial stewardship complements infection control efforts and environmental interventions to provide a comprehensive strategy to prevent and control outbreaks of CDI. The efficacy of metronidazole or Vancomycin prophylaxis to prevent CDI in patients who are receiving other antimicrobials is unproven, and treatment with these agents is ineffective against C. difficile in asymptomatic carriers…

Read more: http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/46/Supplement_1/S43.full

 PREVENTION OF CROSS TRANSMISSION OF MICROORGANISMS IS ESSENTIAL TO PREVENTING OUTBREAKS OF HOSPITAL AQUIRED INFECTIONS

Author:  David Schwegman, MD., Assistant Professor of Medicine, Emory University

Hospital acquired infection outbreaks may be prevented by providing single patient use disposable blood pressure cuffs that will remain with that patient from admission until discharge from the hospital before being discarded. Prevention of patient care device cross-contamination by multiple patient use may be an effective method to reduce the rate of hospital acquired infections…

Read more: http://intl.welchallyn.com/documents/Blood%20Pressure%20Management/FlexiPort%20Blood%20Pressure%20Cuffs/MC5032WHP%20White%20PaperHR.pdf

SIGNIFICANT BACTERIAL COLONIZATION ON THE SURFACE OF NON-DISPOABLE SPHYGMOMANOMETER CUFFS AND RE-USED DISPOSABLE CUFFS

 Authors: Andrew L. Stemicht, M.D. and Alan Van Poznek, M.D.

This study investigated the possibility that significant bacterial contamination of re-usable, non-disposable blood pressure cuffs might occur in the operating room, P.A.C.U., and I.C.U. settings. Such contamination might be of clinical significance were the BP cuff to be located in the region of the operative site during a surgical procedure, or near a wound in the post-operative period. Colonization might be of greater significance in the case of immunosuppressed, obstetric and orthopedic patients undergoing total joint replacement because of the increased need for sterility. Previous studies had pointed out that blood pressure cuffs could indeed be a vector for the transmission of bacterial infections in ward and I.C.U. settings 1,3. A comparison of the relative colonization of re-used cuffs of both permanent and disposable types used with manometers and non-invasive automatic blood pressure monitors was made with clean, disposable cuffs…

Read more: http://intl.welchallyn.com/documents/Blood%20Pressure%20Management/FlexiPort%20Blood%20Pressure%20Cuffs/ICT_article4_OLC.pdf

 THE CASE OF THE BLOODY CUFF

 Author: Kelly M. Pyrek

While last month’s cover story focused on keeping patients safe, we can’t ignore the everyday risks to healthcare workers (HCWs). You’ll find recounts of a number of hair-raising medical errors and near-misses reported to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) on its Morbidity & Mortality Rounds on the Web (www.webmm.ahrq.gov). In what seems to be a page taken from a bad medical thriller, one case study illustrates the ghastly things that can happen when complacency creeps in. A patient who had been in a car crash presented to an ER with massive injuries and profuse bleeding. A fabric-and-nylon blood pressure (BP) cuff used on this patient was saturated with so much blood, it could be wrung out. The patient later died from his injuries. A second patient, also in a collision and who had cuts all over her body, was placed in the same trauma bay vacated by the first patient. The same bloody cuff was used on her, with no regard for standard precautions. A nurse noted that the cuff was used from patient to patient, an observation that was received by other staff members with a shoulder shrug. Several weeks later, the medical examiner revealed that the first patient was HIV and hepatitis B virus positive…

Read more: http://intl.welchallyn.com/documents/Blood%20Pressure%20Management/FlexiPort%20Blood%20Pressure%20Cuffs/ICT_article3_OLC.pdf

SPHYGMOMANOMETERS AS A RESERVOIR OF PATHOGENIC BACTERIA

 Authors: M.A. Beard, A. McIntyre, P.M. Roundtree

The bacterial strains were compared by clinical unit with those strains from isolated patients during a six week period before and after the sampling period. Sources of patient samples included skin lesions, blood, wounds and sputum. Sixty percent of the cuff isolates were identical to strains that had caused infection in the clinical units in which two were found. Two strains were cross infecting organisms across four clinical units during the time of the survey. Since no attempt was made to determine the length of time these cuffs had been use prior to sampling, another study was initiated…

 Read more: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/17818224_Sphygmomanometers_as_a_reservoir_of_pathogenic_bacteria

NONDISPOSABLE SPHYGMOMANOMETER CUFFS HARBOR FREQUENT BACTERIAL COLONIZATION AND SIGNIFICANT CONTAMINATION BY ORGANIC AND INORGANIC MATTER

 Author: V. Base-Smith

In 70 separate cultures collected over 6 weeks, bacterial colonization occurred on 57 (81%) of the blood pressure cuffs. Bacterial colonization was discovered on 100% of the cuffs sampled from the OR, PACU, BSICU, and ER. Of the cuffs from SICU and MICU, 90% and 80% were colonized respectively, while the

NSICU and CICU demonstrated no growth. Thirty-two (45.7%) of the “clean” cuffs were contaminated with organic and/or inorganic substances that should not have been present. Additionally, the patient contact sides of cuffs were contaminated twice as often as the non-patient sides…

Read more: https://www.aana.com/newsandjournal/Documents/nondisposable_0496_p141.pdf

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